tipos de energia renovables: eólica, solar, hidráulica...

When we think of renewable energy sources, our minds immediately turn to solar energy, wind energy, and hydropower. However, there are other ways of producing and consuming energy that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and advance in decarbonization.

What is renewable energy?

Renewable energy includes those types of energy that are obtained from natural sources (sun, wind, water, and plant or animal biomass). Therefore, their main characteristic is that they're unlimited and do not produce greenhouse gas emissions.

What’s more, advances in technology have helped lower the costs of production and maintenance at logistics centers, making renewable energies increasingly more accessible and competitive.

Energy efficiency and renewable energy play a key role in the complex transition towards a low-emissions energy model. Together, they can reduce 90% of CO2 energy-related emissions using safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible technologies.

There are different ways of producing and consuming energy that help reduce CO2 emissions. Here is a list of the different types of renewable energy, classified according to its primary energy sources.

What types of renewable energy are there?

Among the different types of renewable energy sources, also known as clean or alternative energy, we can find:

solar energy panels

Solar energy

Solar energy is obtained from solar radiation, or sunlight. There are two types of solar energy:

  • Photovoltaic solar energy: Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight and transform it into electricity.
  • Thermal solar energy: Thermal collectors absorb and concentrate sunlight to create heat.
wind energy turbines in a field

Wind energy

Wind energy is obtained from wind through wind turbines that transform the kinetic energy from moving air into electricity.

Depending on the location of the wind farms, there are two types of wind energy:

  • Onshore
  • Offshore
Hydropower reservoir and dam


Also known as hydroelectricity, hydropower is the energy generated by transforming the mechanical energy of moving water into electrical power via hydroelectric power plants. The plants themselves can be of various types:

  • Conventional or reservoir-based hydropower plants
  • Run-of-the-river hydropower plants
  • Pumped-storage hydropower plants
Geothermal energy in a geyser

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is obtained by harnessing the heat from within our planet. This energy resource is present everywhere, but it can only be harnessed in locations with specific physical conditions. In the most favorable locations, it can be found naturally in hot springs, geysers, or volcanoes. 

central de energía de biomasa

Biomass energy

Biomass is any organic matter that can be used as a source of energy. and it can be harnessed in multiple ways. For example, biogas can be obtained through a biodegradation process produced by microorganisms. Also, energy crops (non-food crops) can be used to produce biofuel, whose main characteristic is that they're carbon neutral. 

la energía del mar

Marine energy

Marine energy, also known as ocean energy, can come in various forms, mainly:

  • Tidal energy: Power is produced during the rise and fall of tides.
  • Wave energy: Power is produced by harnessing the movement of the waves.

Repsol and renewable energies

At Repsol, we are convinced that only by tackling the major energy challenges before us can we turn them into opportunities. As such, we have incorporated all the technologies available to slash the emissions derived from our operations and products in line with the Company's commitment to fight climate change, and renewable energies play a fundamental role in this whole process.

Repsol wind turbine

Driving renewable electricity generation

Renewable energies are among the alternatives that can contribute the most to the decarbonization of the European and Spanish economies in the coming decades.

Electrification is still considered the main paths to reduce our carbon footprint. The transportation sector is undergoing a rapid transition and electric mobility is playing a fundamental sole thanks to the continuous improvement in battery and new ultra-fast charging systems. However, there are sectors which are more difficult to decarbonize using this solution such as road freight transportation, heavy industry, and the aviation or maritime sectors.

In this complex equation, biofuels are a key ally given that they offer the possibility of choosing between different low-carbon technologies, which are fully compatible with existing combustion vehicles. Also, they have the added value of helping drive the circular economy in Spain by promoting the efficient use and reuse of resources, raw materials, and products throughout their life cycle.

In conjunction with the clean traditional energies from recent years, renewable hydrogen has emerged as another innovative solution, which is also used to produce synthetic fuels.